Network Architecture

Network architecture is the building block of computer network. It is composed of physical structure of a network and its setup. In network architecture we follow some rules and principles. Computer network composed of digital telecommunication network, which allow sending and receiving data from one place to another. Computing devices share data from one node to another node in a systematic way.

Computer networks create links via cables or wireless devices like wifi etc, to the data from one place to another in minimum delivery time. In computer network sending, receiving and terminating the data called node. We give each network a specific IP, which distinguish different computers and with the help of IP’s we easily send and receive the data from one node to another. Nodes generally identified by network address, and can include hosts such as domestic computers, cell phones, servers, routers and switches.

Computer network support most of our application and it support in playing audio, video, sending and receiving of data etc. In every field of IT network architecture plays important role. In data communication mean sending and receiving of data from one place to another place from a communication mean exchange of data from some specific medium maybe wire or wireless. There are five component of data communication; sender, receiver, medium, message and some protocols. Data may be in the form of text, number, audio, video and images.

Internet is communication system it contains a wealth of information to our fingertips and arrange it in a systematic way for our use. Internet changes our daily life and save us most of time. Compare to solving the problem of networking and mathematical on computer and this job is done by hardware. In this task switches involves storing the data. This work would be easily when software involved. In networking there are seven layers to perform a specific task. For example, two friends send a message each other from different place. They may face different steps to post it.

In the same way in networking we send a message it passes through seven different layers and then received by receiver from another node. Network architecture plays an important role in networking or network computer.

Software Architecture

Software structures architecture is a set of precept format choices about the system. Software structure introduce to the critical structures of a software architecture system. A software system basically intercommunicating factors stumble on software program forming part of a computer system. Software structure is defined as the shape and enterprise through which modern-day machine components and subsystems engage to shape systems and the homes of structures that can satisfactory be designed and analyzed at the system level.

Software architecture is about making indispensable structural choices which are costly to change once implemented. Architectural selections concern a software program gadget as a whole, or one or extra of the core elements of such a system. Software architecture is turning into more vital as the dimension and complexity of software systems expand due to the fact the shape of the systems is turning into more vital than the algorithms and facts structures. Software architecture presents conceptual integrity in accomplishing the software program system’s cause and arises from the necessity of delivering price to customers. Documenting software program architecture promotes verbal exchange between stakeholders. The entire understanding of requirements gathered from a number of stakeholders.

The software program architecture is a view of the ordinary machine architecture that consists of the software program aspects and their interrelationships. The elements of the software architecture, the computing environment, and the relationships and dependencies that exist among these elements are identified. These relationships are indicated by the arrows between any two factors of the software program architecture. Notice that the stakeholder needs, software program implementation, and take a look at and contrast elements in the determine are grayed out to indicate that they are not elements of the software program architecture.

Many of the architectural descriptions existing today are on a very ordinary stage e.g. the pipes-and-filters and layer architectural patterns of . In this article we center of attention on microarchitecture on the pattern stage as an important basis for the greater degree architectural descriptions.

Software architecture is about making crucial structural choices which are pricey to alternate once implemented. Software structure choices encompass particular structural picks from possibilities in the plan of software. For example, the systems that managed the space shuttle launch automobile had the requirement of being very quickly and very reliable.

Professional Architects – What They Learn and Apply

People require places to stay, work, play, learn, worship meet, govern, shop and eat, yet, in contemporary era people do not like to spend their time in ordinary or simple places. Hence, they need extra ordinary architecture and unique designs for their all type of places, so that, they want to make their places distinctive from others. For this purpose, they contact an expert person who makes an architecture and design.

Henceforth, the people assign a duty to an architecture to design or decorate these types of places. The places may be private or public; indoors or out; for instance, consisting on rooms, buildings, open public place or sometimes having difficult or distinctive designs or architectures. Its an ultimate duty of architects who make these places distinctive and unique. They often keep experience in this field having license from specific authority. Moreover, they often professionally qualified from an art and design institute or often professionally trained from a professional architect firm or company. So that, they are often keep professional experience to design and develop the concepts for structures and turn those concepts into images, plans or map.

Henceforward, architects create the overall view of building structures. But the design of a building is far more than its actual look. Every building structure is designed and planned according to the needs of people what they require. So, architects must make a practical, safe and economical plan or design. Before delivering a final structure, plan or design of any building, they keep these prior mentioned factors in their mind.

Architectures’ involvement and consultation is must needed in all stages of a project when it is constructed from initial stage to final stage. These specific skills, which are mentioned above, are required for architecture work, for instance, for designing purpose, for engineering, managing, supervising and communicating with clients.  Successful architectures must keep an ability to deal efficiently to their clients with their unique ability.

Both architecture and client discuss together their points of view, their requirements and main thing is budget of a project and after all discussion and arrangement on initial proposition, architecture develop final construction plans.

These plans are laid out according to all structural system like air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems, electrical systems; communication system and landscape plans.

Cognitive Architecture

The goal of this effort is to develop a sufficiently economical, functionally elegant, generically psychological feature, grand unified, psychological feature design in support of virtual humans (and hopefully intelligent agents/robots – and even a brand-new sort of unified theory of human knowledge – as well).

A psychological feature design could be a hypothesis concerning the fastened structures that give a mind, whether or not in natural or artificial systems, and the way they work along – in conjunction with information and skills embodied at intervals the design – to yield intelligent behavior in an exceedingly diversity of complicated environments.

A grand unified design integrates across (nominally symbolic) higher-level thought processes and the other (nominally sub symbolic) aspects crucial for triple-crown behavior in human-like environments, like perception, control, and emotions. A generically psychological feature design spans each the creation of computing and therefore the modeling of natural intelligence, at an acceptable level of abstraction. A functionally elegant design yields a broad vary of capabilities from the interactions among a tiny low general set of mechanisms – primarily what are often thought of as a group of psychological feature Newton’s laws.

A sufficiently economical design executes quickly enough for its anticipated applications; as an example, taking no over fifty millisecond per psychological feature cycle for period virtual humans.

Our focus is on the event of the letter of the alphabet (∑) design, that explores the graphical design hypothesis that progress at now depends on mixing what has been learned from over 3 decades price of freelance development of psychological feature architectures and graphical models, a broadly speaking applicable progressive formalism for constructing intelligent mechanisms.

The result’s a hybrid (discrete continuous) mixed (symbolic probabilistic) approach that has yielded initial results across memory and learning, drawback resolution and deciding, imaging and perception, speech and tongue, and feeling and a spotlight.

Interior Architecture

Architecture is essential for every civilization to survive and grow in every era of life. Architecture helps the civilization to compete with other civilizations in different aspect like lifestyle, development, etc. But how should we follow or use architecture or in other words how to decide a basic and important architecture? A good building structure contains some must have features that are essential to survive in critics of weather. Those must have features are the following:

Durable: a good building structure stays durable or long lasting and stays in good condition in different weather conditions.

Utilization: constructing the building in good way, that user utilizes it in the purpose for which we develop or construct structure.

Beautiful: A good structure looks very beautiful and is not be a laughing stuff.

Internal Architecture:

Internal architecture is actually the designing of a place on a raw field, (upto to a furnished building), starting and constructing by some boundaries for the interaction and communication of humans in these boundaries. It is also known as the initial stage of design and plan to follow up and it can be changed and modified later according to purpose, hence, at every stage of planning during the construction of the building. Internal Architecture contains two further sub categories:

Adaptive reuse:

Adaptive is related to the phenomenon of reusing, modifying or furnishing the existing structure, in which the existing structure a new proposal is erected in a different way from which it was built or designed for in the beginning. It optimizes and is a good method for the performance of built and useless assets.

Sustainable architecture:

Sustainable architecture means that it seeks to lower the risk of negative impact of structures on environment by use of efficient and pure materials. Sustainable architecture uses a sensitive approach to electricity and ecological materials in the design to protect the natural environment.

Types of Computer Architecture

Architecture is defined as the calling of planning structures, open regions, networks, and other structural developments and conditions, more often than not with some respect to stylish impact. Architecture Engineering frequently incorporates structure or choice of goods and enhancements, supervision of development work, and the examination, reclamation, or rebuilding of existing structures.

Computer Architecture:

Computer Architecture is a particular calculation how a lot of programming and equipment innovation models collaborate to shape a PC framework or stage. To put it plainly, computer architecture includes how a PC framework is structured and what advances it is perfect with. 

It includes with different settings and implications of the word engineering;ComputerArchitecture is often compared to the specialty of deciding the necessities of the client/framework/innovation and making a legitimate plan and gauges dependent on those prerequisites.

Types of Computer Architecture:

There are three types of computer architecture:

  • System design
  • Guidance Set Design
  • Microarchitecture
  • System Design: This incorporates with all equipment parts in the framework, including information processors beside the CPU, for example, the designs preparing unit and direct memory to get to. It additionally incorporates memory controllers, information ways and various things like multiprocessing and virtualization. 
  • Guidance Set Design (ISA): This is the implanted programming language of the focal preparing unit. It characterizes the CPU’s capacities and abilities dependent on what programming it would perform or process. This also incorporates the word measure, processor register types, memory tending to modes, information positions and the guidance set that developers use. 
  • Microarchitecture:  it is also called computer organization, this kind of engineering characterizes the information ways, information preparing and capacity components, just as how they ought to be executed in the ISA.


Design role:

The accurate type of a PC framework relies upon the limitations and objectives. PC structures for the most part exchange off models, control versus execution, cost, memory limit, inactivity (dormancy is the measure of time, it takes for data from one hub to head out to the source) and throughput. In some cases, different contemplations, for example, highlights, measure, weight, unwavering quality, and expandability are likewise factors.

Computer organization:

Computer organization helps optimize performance-based products. For example, software engineers need to know the processing power of processors. They may need to optimize software in order to gain the most performance for the lowest price. This can require quite detailed analysis of the computer’s organization. For example, in a SD card, the designers might need to arrange the card so that the most data can be processed in the fastest possible way.


When a guidance set, and miniaturized scale engineering are structured, a useful machine must be created. This plan procedure is known as the execution. Usage is typically not thought about structural plan, but instead equipment configuration designing.

Computer Architecture

Architecture is the process and the product strategy, design and constructs structures such as building etc. Architecture skills, in the material form of structures are normally perceived as traditional and cultural and as art work. Historical population is normally identified on the base of their good or bad surviving architecture success or achievement.

In computer science, computer architecture collection of rules, regulation and methods that explains the working, implementation and organization of computer system, some explanation of architecture explains it as describing abilities, capabilities and program models of a computer but normally not the particular implementation. In other explanation computer architecture contains collection of instruction set architecture designing, micro-architecture designing, logical designing and the implementation of these design.   

Sub Categories:  

Instruction Set Architecture:

The instruction set architecture (ISA) explains the machine code which is read by a processor and acts upon the word size as well memory address modes, data type and processor register. An instruction set of architecture is a communication interface between hardware and software of the computer and it can also be shown as view of the machine of program.

Micro Architecture:  

Micro architecture computer organization explains the way that how a particular processor implementation the ISA. The CPU cache size of a computer for example is a problem that normally has no relation with the (ISA) micro architecture helps to optimize the products that are performance based such as processor’s processing power and processing speed.

Logical Design:

Logical design contains every other hardware component within the computer system that contains:

  • Processing of data other than CPU for example: Direct memory access (DMA).
  • Other problems for example: software features, virtualization and multiprocessing.


There are other many types of computer architecture, but the types mentioned above are the major types and normally major companies and corporation use and follow them. The purpose to design the computer architecture is maximizing the performance and maintaining the low power and low cost.

Architecture Courses and Sub-Fields

Architecture fields includes various subfields which include the distinctive architecture courses. For instance, in most of the universities or institutes the following courses are taught at the level of Bachelor;

  • Bachelor’s in architecture (General)
  • Bachelor’s in Venue Design
  • Bachelor’s in Interior Architecture 
  • Bachelor’s in Science (Design, Architecture and Technology) 
  • Bachelor’s in Science (Architecture, Design & Planning) 
  • Bachelor’s in Science (Architecture & Civil Engineering)
  • Bachelor’s in Science (Landscape Architecture)
  • Bachelor’s in Science (Islamic Art & Architecture) etc.

In Bachelor’s in Science (BSc) or Bachelor’s in Arts, the universities or institutes keep their own distinctive curriculum, hence, follows some basic and mandatory key features. For instance, most of the university teach ‘structural engineering’ as a major part of BA or BSc program (bachelor’s degrees). Most of the university also teach ‘architectural history’ of the field. Moreover, building material studies and principles of environmental design are also taught in most of the universities at level of bachelors.

Additionally, some of the top universities of the world teach 3D designs; through which, the architecture would be able to lay out the possible final 3D outputs of the projects. To draw ‘design theory’, the architecture takes help from the computer and technology to get more attention from the clients of the field.    and building material studies.

Moreover, Various universities of the world offer master’s degrees in architecture studies. The following courses are taught at the level Master;

  • Master of Architecture in Urban Design
  • Master of Architecture Environmental Planning
  • Master of Architecture Architectural Conservation
  • Master of Architecture Landscape Architecture
  • Master of Architecture Industrial Design
  • Master of Architecture Regional Planning
  • Master of Architecture Transport Planning
  • Master of Architecture Building Engineering & Management
  • Master of Architecture Housing
  • Master of Architecture Town and Country Planning etc.

Hence, the main subjects of the Master of Architecture remain same in every master i.e. Construction methods, Architectural history and theory, Structural systems, Building designs etc.

Architecture Course and its Benefits

Architecture course makes itself different from other courses having the aspect of practicality in the field. If we compare it with other professions, in the field, the architect must work with his/her in the field. In comparison to other professions, architecture course involves a little reading or writing, yet, focusing on the hand-work primarily. In the university or institute, the practice is less focused, hence, the more practice is seen out of the university or the classroom. 

Different institutes and universities teach architecture differently i.e. a) a university may teach through research working on various distinctive modules, b) having a sandwich year focusing on practical implementations or c) encourages the students to attend open days or workshops. Although, the course is taught in a university, but the students or learners learn more when they go to the real world, so that, the features of this course are beneficial for the students when they go to field trips or spend a practical year abroad beyond the curriculum or a classroom.

The practical implications of this course make this course distinctive from other course through which the learners get more and more benefits having more interactions with the other people. In this field, the architecture must deal with the people who work in other fields of building construction.

The superior benefit of this course is socialization into the other fields. For instance, after laying out the models and design, at the next stage, the architecture must meet the labor contractors and masons to explain the layouts. Moreover, s/he meets the electrical engineers to discuss the electrical plan. Then s/he meets plumbers. Lastly but not the least, s/he meets painters and welders. Hence, an architecture seems more active and practical person in the field of building construction making more professional relationships than others.

Architecture Courses

  • Architecture; the word describes the several terms in distinctive contexts, for instance, in general, the physical structure of building is laid out at the level of it. Moreover, it is studied as a subject of science and arts, in which, the students study the courses of design and method of construction.
  • Studying architecture would give a student/person the idea about the construction of building in which s/he lives having an appreciation and an understanding of the structures of the contemporary buildings and their models. Hence, the understanding of the future design and models would be gathered for the practical implementations.   

Why study Architecture? 

  • Architecture study or an architecture course makes a student/learner an inventor. Moreover, the thoughts and designs of the Architecture or the inventor are being transformed into a real structure, yet on the other hand, an idea or a suggestion from a layman never get applied on practical level. 
  • In Architecture study, a students or a learner learns through a Architecture course which gives him or her an opportunity to utilize the abilities in a right way utilizing the brain in a right and creative way. Moreover, in practical implications, the learner or student shows his or her creativity through a lot of opportunities while designing structures. 
  • Architecture course or study gives opportunity to the learners to earn a high salary as it is considered a very high paying field. For instance, after a serious hard work passing a lengthy course, having excellent marks, the reputed firms hire the learner or an architecture pursuing and looking for fresh talent and new ideas.
  • After getting a certificate of an architecture course, the learner or the student employs it practically, for instance, s/he works with his hands to complete the real-time projects. Henceforth, the architecture course makes her/him a practical person beyond the reading or writing assignments of a projects in the classroom. The course provides the architecture a basic guideline which further s/he employs in field work i.e. making surveys, building scale models, or talking to people etc. 
  • Beyond the classroom setting, an architecture learns more and more through practical work practicing in the field, going out with his/her field workers and gaining inspiration from other people. Moreover, s/he learns field trips and meeting with other people in the field.